It is common for one to borrow a Talit from one’s fellow when going up to the Torah, for example, or if one uses a communal Talit offered by the synagogue. The Shulhan Aruch (O.H. 14:3), based on the Gemara (Hulin 110), says that if one borrows a four-cornered garment, one is exempt from placing Tzitziot on it for the first thirty days, but is required rabbinically to do so after this time because the garment appears to belong to him. If one borrows a garment which already has Tzitziot, however, one must recite a blessing over it right away.
The Mishna Berura (O.H. 14:11), citing the Rosh (Hulin), says that if one takes the Talit with the intention to return in sometime in the future (Matana Al Menat Lehahzir), then one would recite a blessing. If one merely borrowed it temporarily and did not have the intention to take it as a temporary gift, one would not recite a blessing. As such, the Mishna Berura says that one should lend one’s Talit with the intention that it is as a gift so as to remove any doubt about the need for a blessing. Preferably, one should avoid such a situation.
As mentioned above, the Shulhan Aruch makes no distinction as to the intention of the lender or borrower and implies that a blessing is always recited if one borrows a Talit. Therefore, as long as one borrows a garment that has Tzitziot and can fulfill this Mitzvah, one would recite a blessing. This is no different than one reciting a blessing over a pair of borrowed Tefilin for example. Rabbi Mordechai Karmi (Ma’amar Mordechai ibid) and Elya Rabbah (ibid) echo this opinion unequivocally. Halacha Berura (14:18) writes that this is the common custom of the Sepharadic community nowadays as well.
Summary: Whenever one borrows a Talit , one recites a blessing over it.